The Census Bureau asks three questions specific to service in the armed forces. The tables summarizing responses to those questions are listed below. In addition to the Veteran-specific tables, there are a few other pertinent tables to know about.
In general, the Census tables about employment include "Armed Forces" as a component of the labor force. So, you can use tables like B23001 to know how many people are in active service for a given geography. (See the B23002 series for the same data broken down in racial iterations.) Table B23025 presents employment status by industry, including active service armed forces.
Social and Family Characteristics
These tables have "armed forces" broken out as a separate column:
|B21001†||Sex by Age by Veteran Status for the Civilian Population|
|B21002||Period of Military Service for Civilian Veterans|
|B21003||Veteran Status by Educational Attainment for the Civilian Population|
|B21004||Median Income by Veteran Status by Sex for the Civilian Population|
|B21005‡||Age by Veteran Status by Employment Status|
|B21007‡||Age by Veteran Status by Poverty Status in the Past 12 Months by Disability Status for the Civilian Population|
|B21100‡||Service-connected Disability-rating Status and Ratings for Civilian Veterans|
|B99211||Imputation of Veteran Status for the Population|
|B99212||Imputation of Period of Military Service for Civilian Veterans|
|†Also available in racial iterations.|
|‡Table also available in "collapsed" version: change "B" to "C" for table code.|